A concussion is an injury damaging the brain caused by direct or indirect trauma to the skull. There are mild, moderate, and severe concussions but all should be taken seriously.
Mild concussions generally present with possible memory loss, some mental confusion, a ringing in the ears, and dizziness in addition to pain around the area trauma was sustained.

Moderate concussions have a higher chance for memory loss, increased dizziness and imbalance, and nausea/vomiting. Severe concussions include higher rates of all the aforementioned along with loss of consciousness for more than five minutes and a possibility of retrograde amnesia.

Athletes suffering from concussions should be taken out of their sport completely until fully healed. This means a gradual return to activity when given the green light – starting with walking and stationary cycling and moving up from there.


Whiplash results from a forceful impact, usually from behind, causing the head and neck to snap forward and back in an abrupt, violent motion, affecting soft tissues of the neck including ligaments, tendons, and muscles. Contact sports and car accidents are common grounds for whiplash injury.

Treatment for whiplash begins with RICE therapy, anti-inflammatory medication, and a soft cervical collar, though early movement is being recommended more and more over immobilization.

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